Books > Handbook of Learning Beyond the Classroom

Reinders, H., Lai, C., & Sundqvist, P. (Eds.). (2022). The Routledge encyclopedia of language learning beyond the classroom. Routledge (forthcoming).

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An estimated 80% of adult learning takes place outside of formal education (Cross 1981). For language learning, it is likely that out-of-class experiences play an equally important role (cf. de Bot 2007). It is therefore surprising that the role of informal language learning has received little attention over the years, with the vast majority of research instead focusing on classroom methods, materials and interaction.
Researchers from a range of backgrounds, however, have started to realise the important contribution of informal language learning, both in its own right, and in its relationship with classroom learning. Studies in the areas of learner autonomy, learning strategies, study abroad, work-based learning, language support, learners’ voices, computer-mediated communication, mobile-assisted language learning, education for migrants, digital gaming, and many others, all add to our understanding of the complex and intersecting ways in which learners construct their own language learning experiences, drawing from a wide range of resources, including materials, teachers, self-study, technology, other learners, and native speakers.
Because of the predominance of informal language learning, it is important that the existing body of research is solidified and that the various disciplines that have looked at this area are brought together to present the current state of knowledge in one accessible Handbook, to provide a sound and comprehensive basis for researchers and graduate students in all languages to build their own research on.

Introduction 10
HAYO REINDERS, CHUN LAI AND PIA SUNDQVIST

Part I Mapping LLTBC 17

1 The History of Language Learning and Teaching Beyond the Classroom 18
JON REINHARDT

2 Mapping language learning environments 36
PHIL BENSON

3 Interfacing Formal Education and Language Learning beyond the Classroom 51
STEVEN THORNE AND JOHN HELLERMANN

4 Participant-driven L2 learning in the wild: An overview and its pedagogical implications 72
SØREN W. ESKILDSEN

5 Learning beyond the classroom and autonomy 90
GEOFFREY SOCKETT

6 CALL in the Wild = a voyage of independent self-directed learning? 107
LIAM MURRAY, MARTA GIRALT, MARTIN A. MULLEN AND SILVIA BENINI

7 English Language Learning Beyond the Classroom: Do Learner Factors Matter? 128
CYNTHIA LEE

8 The golden age of foreign language learning. Age and language learning beyond the classroom 147
ELKE PETERS

Part II Supporting LLTBC 164

9 Digital Game-Based Language Learning in Extramural Settings 165
KYLE SCHOLZ

10 Fostering learners’ self-regulation and collaboration skills and strategies for mobile language learning beyond the classroom 182
OLGA VIBERG AND AGNES KUKULSKA-HULME

11 Enhancing Language and Culture Learning Through Social Network Technologies 199
LINA LEE

12 Enhancing language and culture learning in the case of study abroad 215
MARTIN HOWARD

13 Enhancing Language and Culture Learning in Migration Contexts 232
SILVIA KUNITZ

14 Learning to act in the social world: building interactional competence through everyday language use experiences 249
ARJA PIIRAINEN-MARSH AND NIINA LILJA

15 Enhancing language learning in private tutoring 273
KEVIN WAI HO YUNG

16 Enhancing the Quality of Out-of-Class Learning in Flipped Learning 292
JUN CHEN HSIEH, MICHAEL W. MAREK AND Wen-CHI VIVIAN WU

17 Enhancing language learning beyond the classroom through advising 310
JO MYNARD AND SATOKO KATO

18 Online Learner Communities for Fostering Autonomous Learning beyond the Classroom 327
WENLI WU AND QING MA

19 Self-access Centres for Facilitating Autonomous Language Learning 344
DAVID GARDNER

20 Assessments of and for LBC 363
TONY BURNER

Part III Researching LLTBC 376

21 Ethics, privacy and security in researching LBC 377
LISS KERSTIN SYLVÉN

22 Evaluation of instruments for researching learners’ LBC 392
JU SEONG LEE

23 Methods and Approaches to Investigating Language Learning in the Digital Wilds 411
SHANNON SAURO

24 The use of mixed methods to study language learning beyond the classroom 426
LISBETH M. BREVIK AND NILS BUCHHOLTZ

25 Language Learning Diary Studies in Learning beyond the Classroom Contexts 442
KATHLEEN M. BAILEY

26 Doing LLBC research with young learners 458
SIGNE HANNIBAL JENSEN

27 Ethnography in LBC research 476
ANASTASIA ROTHONI

28 When Classrooms aren’t an Option: Researching Mobile Language Learning through Disruption 493
MATT SMITH, HOWARD SCOTT AND JOHN TRAXLER

29 Bringing beyond into the L2 classroom: On video ethnography and the ‘wild’ in-class use of smartphones 510
PETER WIKSTRÖM AND MARIE NILSBERTH

30 Learning Analytics and Educational Data Mining in Learning Beyond the Classroom 533
MICHAEL THOMAS